Depression refers to intense sadness. It is a widespread mental illness, indeed one of the most widespread. As for mild sadness or feeling "blue", this is a normal and natural emotion which hardly anyone can escape, not even a believer. Allah (SWT) says:
Secret counsels (conspiracies) are only from Shaytaan (Satan), in order that he may cause grief to the believers.Al-Qur’an, 58:10)
If that sadness increases and takes over a person, it becomes depression.
Signs of depression:
Causes of depression:
These are factors that are outside a person, such as life events like losing a loved one, or losing money or social standing. If this person does not have the protection of faith, he will go through several stages until he reaches the stage of depression.
These have to do with the person's physical make-up, such as brain cells, a lack of thyroid hormones or a lack of certain vitamins.
Treatment: As depression is a mental illness, the treatment for it is by means of the Noble Qur'an, especially in cases where the causes are external. The patient should be reminded to remember Allah and to believe in the divine will and decree (Al-Qada' Wa'l-Qadar) and the reward for those who are patient. Examples should be given from the lives of the Sahaabah and so on. He should also be reminded to recite a great deal of the Dhikrs and Duaa's that have been narrated from the Prophet (PBUH) for treating worry, grief and distress, such as the following:
It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) used to say at times of distress:
Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah ul-azeem Al-haleem, laa ilaaha ill-AUaah Rabb il-'arsh il'azeem, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah Rabb ul-samawaati wa rabb ul-ard wa rabb ul-arsh ilkareem
There is no god but Allah, the Almighty, the Forbearing; there is no god but Allah, Lord of the Mighty Throne; there is no god but Allah, Lord of the heavens, Lord of the earth and Lord of the noble Throne Al-Saheehayn
In Jaami Al-Tirmidhi it is narrated from Anas (ra) that when the Messenger of Allah was distressed by something, he would say:
Yaa Hayyu yaa Qayyoom, bi Rahmatika astagheeth
O Ever-Living One, O Everlasting One, by Your mercy I seek help
It is narrated from Abu Huraira & that when the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was worried about something, he would lift his gaze towards heaven and say:
Subhaan Allaah il-'Azeem
Glory be to Allah, the Almighty
And when he strove hard in Duaa he would say:
Yaa Hayyul Yaa Qayyoom
O Ever-Living One, O Everlasting One
In Sunan Abi Dawud it is narrated from Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
The prayer of the one who is in distress is:
Allahumma arju rahmataka fa la takilni ila nafsi tarfata 'aynin, wa aslah li sha'ni kullahu laa ilaaha illa anta.
O Allah, I hope for Your mercy, do not leave me to my own devices for even the blink of an eye, and set all my affairs straight, there is no god but You
And it is narrated that Asma bint Umais said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said to me:
Shall I not teach you some words to say at times of distress?
Allah, Allah rabbi laa ushriku bihi shay'an
Allah, Allah is my Lord and I do not associate anything with Him
According to one report, it should be said seven times.
In Musnad Ahmad it is narrated from Ibn Mas'ud that the Prophet (PBUH) said:
No person suffers any anxiety or grief, and says:
Allaahumma innee 'abduka wa ibn 'abdika wa ibn amatika, naasiyati bi yadika, maadinfiyya hukmuka, 'adlunfiyya qadaa'uka, as'aluka bi kulli ismin huwa laka sammayta bihi nafsaka aw anzaltahu ft kitaabika aw 'allamtahu ahadan min khalqika aw ista'tharta bihi fi 'ilm il-ghaybi 'andak an taj'ala Al-Qur'aana rabee' qalbi wa noor sadri wa jalaa'a huzni wa dhahaaba hammi.
O Allah, I am Your slave, son of Your slave, son of Your female slave, my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every Name belonging to You which You named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with You, that You make the Qur'an the life of my heart and the light of my breast, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety
but Allah (SWT) will take away his sorrow and grief, and give him in their stead joy,
In Sunnan Al-Tirmidhi it is narrated that Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqaas said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
The prayer of Yunus (AS) which he said when he was in the belly of the fish:
“Laa ilaaha ilia Anta, subhaanaka inni kuntu min Al-zaalimeen”
None has the right to be worshipped but You (O Allah), Glorified (and Exalted) be You [above all that (evil) they associate with You]! Truly, I have been of the wrongdoers(cf. Al-Anbiya' 21:87)
No Muslim man calls upon Allah (SWT) with these words concerning any matter but Allah will answer him.
According to another report:
I do not know of any words that a person says in distress but Allah will relieve him of it, except the words of my brother Yunus
In Sunan Abi Dawood it is narrated that Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) entered the mosque one day and saw a man from among the Ansar who was called Abu Umamah. He (PBUH) said:
O Abu Umamah, why do I see you in the mosque when it is not the time for prayer?
Worries and debts that are burdening me.
He (PBUH) said:
Shall I not teach you some words which, if you say them, Allah will take away your worries and pay off your debt?
Yes, O Messenger of Allah.
He (PBUH) said:
Allaahumma inni a'oodhu bika min Al-hammi wa'lhazani wa a'oodhu bika min aTajzi wa'l-kasali wa aoodhu bika min a'l-jubni wa'l-bukhli wa a'oodhu bika min ghalbat il-dayn wa qahr il-rijaal.
0 Allah, I seek refuge with You from worry and grief, and I seek refuge with You from incapacity and laziness, and I seek refuge with You from cowardice and miserliness, and I seek refuge with You from being heavily in debt and from being overcome by men
He said: I said it and Allah took away my worries and paid off my debt for me.
In Sunan Abi Dawud it is narrated that Ibn Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
Whoever persists in praying for forgiveness, Allah will give him a way out from every worry and distress, and will provide for him from (sources) he never could imagine
Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said:
Whoever has many worries and concerns, let him frequently recite:
Laa hawla wa laa quwwata ilia Billaah
There is no power and no strength except with Allah).
It is proven in Al-Sahihayn that this is one of the treasures of Paradise. In Al-Tirmidhi it says that it is one of the gates of Paradise
There follow fourteen reminders for the one who is suffering from worry, distress, sorrow and depression:
With regard to depression whose causes are internal, its treatment is to be sought from psychologists, especially if medical tests and equipment detect the presence of a defect in the brain cells or a hormone deficiency. If there is no clear medical cause, there is no harm in performing Ruqyah be reciting the Qur'an, especially since depression is one of the symptoms of jinn possession. There is no conflict between the Qur'anic remedies and psychology.